Outbreak Movie Trailer (1. You. Tube. Hochgeladen am 1. A virus similar to Ebola & Lassa is discovered in Africa in 1.
Col. Sam Daniels of the U. S. Army is sent in to investigate it.
When he returns he warns his boss, Brigadier- Gen. Ford, of the lethal nature of the virus and wants to put out an alert.
Ford, who had been one of the men who first dealt with the virus, insists the virus is contained and unlikely to show up in the U. S. What neither man knows is that the host - a monkey - has been brought into the U. S. by freighter. Through an under- the- table bribe, a young man gets the monkey out of the animal- testing lab it was bound for. Soon, the man is infected - and Col. Daniels' ex- wife, Dr. Keough - now with the CDC - is called into Boston when the young man is brought to a hospital in critical condition.
Dr. Keough discovers that the man has died from the virus, and at the same time - on the other side of the country - a new outbreak is starting in a little California town. A quarantine is set up to stop the virus from spreading, while Ford's boss, the sinister Major- Gen. Mc. Clintock, has his own agenda in mind - to harness this lethal bug for use as a bioweapon. With the President about to order a fuel- air bomb to be dropped on the little town to stop the outbreak, Daniels must find a way to unravel Mc. Clintock's sinister plan..
Marburg virus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Marburg virus (MAR- bÉ™rg. VY- rÉ™s) is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus, genus Marburgvirus. Marburg virus (MARV) causes Marburg virus disease in humans and nonhuman primates, a form of viral hemorrhagic fever. The virus is considered to be extremely dangerous. The WHO rates it as a Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring biosafety level 4- equivalent containment). In the United States, the NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ranks it as a Category A Priority Pathogen and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists it as a Category A Bioterrorism Agent. It is also listed as a biological agent for export control by the Australia Group.In 2. Ebola and Marburg vaccine began in Kampala, Uganda.DiscoveryMarburg virus was first described in 1.
It was noticed during small outbreaks in the German cities Marburg and Frankfurt and the Yugoslav capital Belgrade in the 1. German workers were exposed to tissues of infected grivet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) at the city's former main industrial plant, the Behringwerke, then part of Hoechst, and today of CSL Behring. During these outbreaks, 3. MARV is a Select Agent. NomenclatureThe virus is one of two members of the species. Marburg marburgvirus, which is included in the genus.
Marburgvirus, family. Filoviridae, order. Mononegavirales. The name Marburg virus is derived from Marburg (the city in Hesse, Germany, where the virus was first discovered) and the taxonomicsuffixvirus.According to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the name Marburg virus is always to be capitalized, but is never italicized, and may be abbreviated (with MARV being the official abbreviation). Marburg virus was first introduced under this name in 1. In 2. 00. 5, the virus name was changed to Lake Victoria marburgvirus, which unfortunately was the same spelling as its species Lake Victoria marburgvirus.[1. However, most scientific articles continued to refer to Marburg virus. Consequently, in 2.
Before Contagion, perhaps the best-known epidemic movie was Outbreak, about a mysterious African virus called “Motaba” that winds up in the Midwest. Dean Winchester (born January 24, 1979) is a human and hunter as well as a member of the Men of Letters with his younger brother Sam. He and his brother are members.
Marburg virus (/ ˈ m ɑr b ər ɡ ˈ v aɪ r ə s / MAR-bərg VY-rəs ) is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the. Outbreak is a 1995 American medical disaster film directed by Wolfgang Petersen and very loosely based on Richard Preston's non-fiction book The Hot Zone. . Synopsis. Ed Bright and his friend Marshall Todd are leaving a sports bar in Grants Pass, Oregon, when Eve approaches them. Ed clumsily flirts with her, and she.
Marburg virus was reinstated and the species name changed. A previous abbreviation for the virus was MBGV. Human diseaseMARV is one of two marburgviruses that causes Marburg virus disease (MVD) in humans (in the literature also often referred to as Marburg hemorrhagic fever, MHF). Both viruses fulfill the criteria for being a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus because their genomes diverge from the prototype Marburg marburgvirus or the Marburg virus variant Musoke (MARV/Mus) by < 1.
Outbreak (1995) on IMDb: In July of 1967, In Motaba River Valley, Zaire, a virus with a 100% mortality rate starts infecting people. The virus becomes known as the. A virus similar to Ebola & Lassa is discovered in Africa in 1969. 25 years later, it resurfaces - and Col. Sam Daniels of the U.S. Army is sent in to. Supreme Court rules on behalf of an Obama donor; overturns a $21.6 million judgment. Their generic drug for Clinoril™ caused a woman's skin to peel off, permanently. A pandemic disease with lethal or at least very serious consequences for the infected. The Plague stories come in several different types. In the first, the ….
Recorded outbreaksMarburg virus disease (MVD) outbreaks due to Marburg virus (MARV) infection. Year. Geographic location. Human Deaths/Cases (case- fatality rate)1.
Marburg and Frankfurt, West Germany, and Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Rhodesia and Johannesburg, South Africa. Kenya. 1/2 (5. 0%)[2. Kenya. 1/1 (1. 00%)[2. Koltsovo, Soviet Union.
Koltsovo, Soviet Union. Durba and Watsa, Democratic Republic of the Congo ? A total of 1. 54 cases and 1. The case fatality was 8. Two different marburgviruses, MARV and Ravn virus (RAVV), cocirculated and caused disease. It has never been published how many cases and deaths were due to MARV or RAVV infection)[2. Angola. 22. 7/2. 52 (9.
Uganda. 1/3 (3. 3%)[3. Uganda, Netherlands, USA1/2 (5. Uganda. 9/1. 8 (5. Uganda. 1/1 (1. 00%)[4. VirologyLike all mononegaviruses, marburgvirions contain non- infectious, linear nonsegmented, single- stranded RNAgenomes of negative polarity that possesses inverse- complementary 3' and 5' termini, do not possess a 5' cap, are not polyadenylated, and are not covalently linked to a protein.[4. Marburgvirus genomes are approximately 1.
Surname: First Names: Number: History: AARDEN: PAUL MICHAEL: 2354: 1997 – General manager of Sun Microsystems for South and Central Africa, based in Johannesburg.
UTR- NP- VP3. 5- VP4. GP- VP3. 0- VP2. 4- L- 5'- UTR.[4. The genomes of the two different marburgviruses (MARV and RAVV) differ in sequence. Structure. Cryo.
EM reconstruction of a section of the Marburg virus nucleocapsid. EMDB entry EMD- 1. Like all filoviruses, marburgvirions are filamentous particles that may appear in the shape of a shepherd's crook or in the shape of a "U" or a "6", and they may be coiled, toroid, or branched.[4. Marburgvirions are generally 8. In general, the median particle length of marburgviruses ranges from 7. Marburgvirions consist of seven structural proteins. At the center is the helicalribonucleocapsid, which consists of the genomic RNA wrapped around a polymer of nucleoproteins (NP).
Associated with the ribonucleoprotein is the RNA- dependent RNA polymerase (L) with the polymerase cofactor (VP3. VP3. 0). The ribonucleoprotein is embedded in a matrix, formed by the major (VP4. VP2. 4) matrix proteins. These particles are surrounded by a lipid membrane derived from the host cell membrane. The membrane anchors a glycoprotein (GP1,2) that projects 7 to 1. While nearly identical to ebolavirions in structure, marburgvirions are antigenically distinct. Niemannâ€“Pick C1 (NPC1) cholesterol transporter protein appears to be essential for infection with both Ebola and Marburg virus.
Two independent studies reported in the same issue of Nature showed that Ebola virus cell entry and replication requires NPC1.[4. When cells from patients lacking NPC1 were exposed to Ebola virus in the laboratory, the cells survived and appeared immune to the virus, further indicating that Ebola relies on NPC1 to enter cells. This might imply that genetic mutations in the NPC1 gene in humans could make some people resistant to one of the deadliest known viruses affecting humans. The same studies described similar results with Marburg virus, showing that it also needs NPC1 to enter cells.[4. Furthermore, NPC1 was shown to be critical to filovirus entry because it mediates infection by binding directly to the viral envelope glycoprotein[4. NPC1 mediates this binding.[5. In one of the original studies, a small molecule was shown to inhibit Ebola virus infection by preventing the virus glycoprotein from binding to NPC1.[4.
In the other study, mice that were heterozygous for NPC1 were shown to be protected from lethal challenge with mouse- adapted Ebola virus.[4. Together, these studies suggest NPC1 may be potential therapeutic target for an Ebola antiviral drug. ReplicationThe marburg virus life cycle begins with virion attachment to specific cell- surface receptors, followed by fusion of the virion envelope with cellular membranes and the concomitant release of the virus nucleocapsid into the cytosol. The virus Rd. Rp partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive- stranded m. RNAs, which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. Marburgvirus L binds to a single promoter located at the 3' end of the genome.
Transcription either terminates after a gene or continues to the next gene downstream. This means that genes close to the 3' end of the genome are transcribed in the greatest abundance, whereas those toward the 5' end are least likely to be transcribed. The gene order is therefore a simple but effective form of transcriptional regulation. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, whose concentration in the cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication results in full- length, positive- stranded antigenomes that are in turn transcribed into negative- stranded virus progeny genome copies. Newly synthesized structural proteins and genomes self- assemble and accumulate near the inside of the cell membrane. Virions bud off from the cell, gaining their envelopes from the cellular membrane they bud from.
The mature progeny particles then infect other cells to repeat the cycle.[1. EcologyIn 2. MARV was reported from caught healthy Egyptian rousettes (Rousettus aegyptiacus).[3.
This isolation, together with the isolation of infectious RAVV,[3. Old World fruit bats are involved in the natural maintenance of marburgviruses. Further studies are necessary to establish whether Egyptian rousettes are the actual hosts of MARV and RAVV or whether they get infected via contact with another animal and therefore serve only as intermediate hosts. Recently the first experimental infection study of Rousettus aegyptiacus with MARV provided further insight into the possible involvement of these bats in MARV ecology.[5.
Experimentally infected bats developed relatively low viremia lasting at least 5 days, but remained healthy and didn't develop any notable gross pathology. The virus also replicated to high titers in major organs (liver and spleen), and organs that might possibly be involved in virus transmission (lung, intestine, reproductive organ, salivary gland, kidney, bladder and mammary gland). The relatively long period of viremia noted in this experiment could possibly also facilitate mechanical transmission by blood sucking arthropods or infection of susceptible vertebrate hosts by direct contact with infected blood. Biological weaponThe Soviet Union had an extensive offensive and defensive biological weapons program that included MARV.[5. At least three Soviet research institutes had MARV research programs during the Cold War: the Virology Center of the Scientific- Research Institute for Microbiology in Zagorsk (today Sergiev Posad), the Scientific- Production Association "Vektor" (today the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vektor") in Koltsovo, and the Irkutsk Scientific- Research Anti- Plague Institute of Siberia and the Far East in Irkutsk.
As most performed research was highly classified, it remains unclear how successful the MARV program was. However, Soviet defector. Ken Alibek claimed that a weapon filled with MARV was tested at the Stepnogorsk Scientific Experimental and Production Base in Stepnogorsk, Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (today Kazakhstan),[5. MARV biological weapon had reached advanced stages. Independent confirmation for this claim is lacking.